Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence l Initial Problems of Pakistan PDF

 

Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence

12 Biggest Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence

The date of August 14, 1947 reminds us of a historical event after which one of the greatest nations of the world was born. The list of initial problems of Pakistan after independence is too long and cannot be covered in one article. Most of Pakistan's initial problems after independence were deliberately created to destabilize the fledgling state. Partition was not the only problem, but establishing a new government with several opposing borders was difficult. In short, the independence and establishment of Pakistan was not a piece of cake and was achieved through the sacrifices of millions of people.

Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence

Initial problems of Pakistan

Here is a small list of the initial problems faced by Pakistan after the partition.

 

1. Division of assets

The British government divided the assets between Pakistan and India. According to the agreement, Pakistan got a share of 75 crores. Initially only 20 crores were transferred to Pakistan. Apart from them, military equipment and records were also to be transferred to Pakistan. The Indian government's negative attitude towards the transfer of divided assets created a lot of difficulties for Pakistan.

 

2. Water crisis

Pakistan's water crisis began when India closed the headworks of Pakistan's rivers on the morning of April 1, 1948. Due to which the crops in Punjab were severely damaged. India started demanding money for the water used by Pakistan. For a permanent solution to this problem, Pakistan took the help of the United Nations and on 19 September 1960, an agreement called the "Indus Water Treaty" was signed in Karachi.

 

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3. Choosing the capital of the country

One of the biggest and most pressing problems of Pakistan after independence was that it did not have many developed cities like India. Pakistani leaders therefore have only a few choices of cities as capitals. Karachi was chosen as the capital, and officers and officials moved from Delhi to Karachi to establish the government capital. Records, offices, furniture were lacking. During this difficult time, some government offices were also established in military barracks. Later, 20 years after partition, on 14 August 1967, Islamabad became the second capital of Pakistan under Ayub Khan.

 

4. Unfair boundary by Cyril Radcliffe

A commission was set up to divide some provinces between Pakistan and India. Since the majority of the British officers were against partition, they tried to harm Pakistan in every possible way. Viceroy Mountbatten was also inclined towards India.

 

Due to this Pakistan lost many Muslim majority areas including Ferozepur, Gurdaspur, parts of Kashmir and Jalandhar.

 

5. The issue of refugees

According to sources, about 6.5 million people migrated to Pakistan. Out of which 52 lakh people migrated to Punjab. It was not an easy task for the government of Pakistan to make permanent arrangements for the resettlement of such a large number of people. Despite limited resources, Pakistan established refugee camps for refugees and provided them with food and health facilities.

 

6. Killing of hundred thousands of Muslim Refugees In India

When the partition of Punjab was decided, the Muslims living in the Indian part of Punjab started migrating to Pakistani Punjab. Hindus and Sikhs started killing Muslims. Men and children were killed. Women were raped. Countless Muslim caravans and Muslim trains bound for Pakistan were completely destroyed. This resulted in over 5 lakh deaths in less than a month.

 

7. Language Problem

When Pakistan became independent, more than 70 languages were spoken in Pakistan at that time. But only Urdu was given the status of national language in the 1956 constitution. This created hatred in the hearts of Bengalis living in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), which led to many riots and eventually Bangladesh. The leaders mishandled the whole situation, and riots resulted in casualties.

 

8. Forceful annexation of princely states by India

A coastal princely state 300 km from Karachi decided to join Pakistan, but India did not recognize the state's decision and therefore took control of India by force. This move by India was completely against the principle that states can decide whether they want to join Pakistan or India.

 

Similarly, India once again violated the principles of annexation of states when the Nizam of Hyderabad decided not to join Pakistan and India. India also occupied Hyderabad by force.

 

9. Death of Quaid E Azam and Liaqat Ali Khan

Quaid-e-Azam died about a year after Pakistan's independence and Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan was also assassinated in 1951 while addressing a gathering of over one hundred thousand people at Company Bagh, Rawalpindi. Due to the unfortunate death of these two leaders, Pakistan faced a dearth of leaders who were dedicated to the country. The country fell into disarray at the hands of bureaucracy and dishonest leaders. Experts believe that due to the early death of Quaid and Liaquat Ali Khan, Pakistan deviated from the path of becoming a welfare state.

 

Quaid e Azam - Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence

10. Economic problems

When Pakistan became independent, India refused to give Pakistan its fair share of national wealth. Also, the areas that became part of Pakistan were mostly agricultural areas with little industry. Due to which Pakistan faced serious economic problems.

 

11. Constitution-making

One of the most pressing problems faced by the early Pakistani people was the lack of a constitution. Therefore, some amendments to the Indian Act of 1935 were made temporarily and enacted as an interim constitution.

 

12. Defence of boundaries

When Pakistan became independent, it became concerned about the defense of its borders because there were different problems on the eastern and western borders. In the West, Afghanistan refused to recognize Pakistan and was the only country to oppose Pakistan's membership in the United Nations. The situation with India in the east was also not good for a few reasons. Modern military equipment was also lacking. So the defense of Pakistan's borders became a major problem at that time.

 Initial Problems of Pakistan PDF


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