The History of Hindustan PDF

The History of Hindustan PDF

 

The Assyrians under Semiramis, and the Persians under Darius, are said to have penetrated into the north-western part of this region, but the information we have of their campaigns is very fragmentary. And the earliest details which give any connected account of India are those of Alexander's historians. This conqueror proceeded to Punjab but did not establish any permanent dominion beyond the river Indus. One of his successors, Seleucus Nicator, is believed to have marched with an army into the heart of India against the Sandracotes (Chandragupta), and afterward to have sent Megasthenes to that sovereign. Sent an embassy to the capital Palibothra, which is supposed to be Patna or Bhaugalpur.

 

The History of Hindustan PDF

The Greek kings of Bactria really pushed their conquests into India, followed by the Parthians and Scythians. The authors of the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, and Pliny, give some description of the western coast of India. But after the fall of the Roman Empire, several centuries passed before more authentic information about the countries beyond the Persian Desert was reached.

 

Muslim invasions and the modern history of India

The modern history of India begins with A. n. 1000, when Mahmud of Ghazni, a Mahometan sovereign whose kingdoms stretched from the Indian Ocean to the Caspian, made the first of his 13 successful campaigns in India, in which he reached Kanauj, Bundelkand, and Gujarat. In 1174, the Ghaznavid dynasty was overthrown by Mahomet of Ghor, who also invaded India on several occasions, and whose successor, Kutb, in 1215, founded the Patan or Afghan sovereignty, with its seat at Delhi. The Patan dynasty lasted until 1525, and during its continuance, India suffered the successive ravages of Jungiz Khan and Timur. Babur, a descendant of Timnar, in 1526, founded the Mughal dynasty. After him, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb were the most famous kings.

 

The Mughal empire reached its height during Aurangzeb's reign and the Mahometan conquest of the Deccan took place during his reign. However his rule was interrupted by the rise of Mahratta's power under Sivaji, and after the death of his successor, Shah Uloom, in 1713, the Mughal Empire rapidly declined. The Nizam, and other viceroys of the empire, then set up independent kingdoms for themselves in various parts of India, which were soon destroyed by Nadir Shah's invasion and a fresh attack by the Afghans.

 

South India and the Hindu Empires

While the former dynasties ruled India, South India had long been the center of several independent Hindu autocracies. the principal of which were Bijapur and Bijnagur, but which were successively conquered by the Mahometans. Shortly after the fall of the Bhamani Empire of the Deccan, and 27 years before Babur founded the Mughal Empire, in 1498 the Portuguese under Vasco da Gama arrived in Calicut, which was then ruled by a prince named Zamorin. Within a short time, they had captured Goa, Diu, and other places, along the western coast of India. The coast trade was for a period entirely under their control. They were followed by the Dutch, who, however, almost confined themselves to trade with India, and never made any important settlements in its territory. In the 18th century, the French looked for means to establish colonies, especially on the eastern side of India. But before the turn of the century, their progress towards dominance in India was checked. And, early in the present century, their influence over Indian politics and native sovereignties was completely destroyed by the British.

 

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